warehouse-design

List of flammable items/ Combustible dust dangers in a grocery warehouse

What is the difference between flammable and combustible?

Flammable goods can catch fire and burn easily at normal temperatures, whereas combustible goods require higher than normal temperature to ignite. In a grocery warehouse, it is essential to separate these goods into compartments to prevent fire hazards.

Dust Explosions

Dust explosions in grocery warehouses are likely. A dust explosion occurs when a concentrated and confined dust cloud comes in contact with an ignition source. This is an airborne risk and can be solved with thorough housekeeping and installation of a dust collection system in a warehouse.

The five cycles for dust explosions to occur are illustrated in this diagram. This diagram is also called ‘Dust explosion pentagon’.

warehouse architecture, fire safety, dust explosion diagram, dust explosion,
  1. Fuel or combustible dust: This can be anything like sawdust, paper dust, flour or sugar (in case of a grocery warehouse)
  2. Oxygen: Atmospheric oxygen also works like a fuel or oxidant and if concentration of dust is very high, explosions might not occur if there is low oxygen to support combustion.
  3. Ignition: This is the source of fire.
  4. Dispersion: Distribution of the combustible dust.
  5. Confinement: The state of being confined or captive within an enclosure.

A strong pressure waveforms when combustible dust builds up and combusts in the right concentration level. Mainly three sources are required:

  1. Oxygen
  2. An ignition source
  3. An enclosed space- if the building is considered as an enclosure.

Initially a primary dust explosion occurs as a first point of explosion which gradually occurs to form a secondary explosion pressure when concentrated pressure builds up further resulting in a much more extensive explosion inside a warehouse.

Here is a list of common mundane organic goods which can disperse to form dust cloud in a grocery warehouse.

Name

Details

Flour

If spilled into direct flame, flour can ignite. Flour ignition is common and a result of dust cloud caused Minnesota mill to explode in 1878. Flour is a carbohydrate and becomes more explosive when it gets mixed with the air.

Grains

Dust explosions are widespread in grain silos because of its ability to ignite. Grain dust is highly combustible and can be a hazardous if ignition source such as overheated motor, misaligned conveyor belt are nearby.

Corn starch

Another risky source of dust cloud within a grocery warehouse due to having a very fine particle.

Sugar

Sugar is also a carbohydrate like flour, and so it is flammable for the same reasons. When sugar gets hot enough, it can ignite and catch fire.

Powdered milk

Highly flammable when dispersed in a confined environment.

Coffee creamer

Contains sodium aluminosilicate, a substance that prevents coffee creamer from caking is flammable when dispersed.

Coffee granules

Flammable only when dry and comes in contact with an ignition source.

 

The previous list consisted of both flammable as well as grocery goods that can cause explosions from dust cloud. The list below is contains both combustible and flammable good that do not form dust clouds but are still hazardous and require compartmentalization when stored in a warehouse which stores household goods along with grocery.

 

Name

Details

Cooking oil

Cooking oils are highly flammable and different oils vary on their smoke and flash points. A flash point is a temperature when oil creates flammable vapors which when exposed to heat can cause a fire. The table below shows the smoke points of different oils.

All alcohol-based cooking sauces

Cooking sauces are flammable because they contain small amounts of alcohol which might have flammable vapors. Open sauce bottles should never be left near heat sources as there is a risk of explosion from such sauce bottles.

Cinnamon powder

Contains cinnamaldehyde and eugenol, which are flammable. Much like flour, cinnamon can cause an explosion if it comes in contact with air.

Aerosol cans

Flammable propellants, such as propane or butane are used in many aerosol cans.

In addition, the pressurized cans themselves are hazardous and risk of explosion is   evident if overheated. An explosion also could occur if a pressurized can is accidentally pierced.

Hand sanitizer

Due to the presence of alcohol, common sanitizers can cause 2nd and 3rd degree burns if they are around an open flame.

Oranges

Orange produces limonene. The juice contained within the fruit allows an open flame to ignite very quickly and cause severe damage to a home or building.

Nail polish and nail polish remover

Contains acetone whose vapors are flammable and they are able to travel through the air, igniting any nearby flames.

Paraffin-Based Skin Creams

Many people used paraffin-based skin products which have soaked into their clothing and then ignited causing burns.

Laundry Products

 

Almost all laundry products, stain removers and fabric softeners are flammable. So it is important to store them safely, and avoid exposure to a flame.

Insect killers

They contain harmful chemicals like Cyfluthrin, Permethrin, Pyrethroids

 

smoke points, oil smoke points, oil temperature, flammable oils, warehouse, warehouse architecture, fire safety,

Information source: StrikeFirstUSA, Robovent

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A breakdown of all the studies have been compiled in my Warehouse design blog

For convenience, I here are direct links to all the Research topics with proper reference.

  1. Introduction to modern "Bazaar"
  2. Literature Synthesis and Typology of warehouses
  3. Why the 19th century warehouse did not sustain? History
  4. Case Study of- A warehouse with over 3000 orders a day
  5. Site Analysis of Tejgaon Industrial Area/ Development Trend of Tejgaon Industrial Area/ Number of plots and their floor area
  6. Defining site and its surroundings according to theories of Kevin Lynch/ Site Location/ Site Area etc.
  7. Site surroundings, Location of electric poles and existing site images
  8. Project Programme
  9. Difference between traditional and modern Warehousing
  10. Fundamentals of Modern Warehousing
  11. Warehouse building types
  12. Warehouse and the Industrial Revolution
  13. What is Industry 4.0?
  14. Storage efficiency with various handling methods
  15. Industrial truck (forklift) dimensions
  16. Autonomous Vehicles in warehouse logistics
  17. Industrial Pallets, Standard pallet patterns and Standard Pallet sizes
  18. Loading Bay sizes, planning and Layout criteria
  19. Planning for fire control and Fire compartmentalization
  20. Amenity and Hygiene/ Washing and toilet facilities/ workplace design considerations
  21. Rules from BNBC Part I
  22. Rules from BNBC Part II Fire Protection
  23. List of flammable items/ Combustible dust dangers in a grocery warehouse
  24. Rat proofing/ Termite proofing in industrial buildings
  25. Industrial Shelves
  26. Field Survey
  27. Design Documents: FAR Calculation and Building code (RAJUK)
  28. Concept info graphic, Massing diagram and Volume Analysis

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Read the Next Article: Rat proofing/ Termite proofing in industrial buildings

Read the Previous Article: Rules from BNBC Part II Fire Protection

Link to Full portfolio: https://shawlin.net/blogs/architecture-portfolio


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